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Re-Testing PISA Students One Year Later. On School Value Added Estimation Using OECD-PISA

Massimiliano Bratti*,
Universita’ degli Studi di Milano and IZA, Bonn

Daniele Checchi#,
Universita’ degli Studi di Milano and IZA, Bonn

In two provinces of Northern Italy the OECD PISA 2009 test was re-administered to the same individuals one year later. We show that: a) cross-sectional school fixed effects estimates are volatile over time, given the high year-to-year attrition in the student population; b) longitudinal measures of school value added are more robust to student attrition, but require adequate control for sample selection of both schools and stu¬dents; c) longitudinal measures may still provide inadequate measures of teachers/schools contribution to student compe¬tences. This happens when students are tracked on ability, they can change school tracks and/or drop out from schools.

[JEL Classification: 121; J24].

Keywords: OECD-PISA; school assessment; student attrition.

massimiliano.bratti@unimi.it, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods (DEMM), Universita’ degli Studi di Milano.
daniele.checchi@unimi.it, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative.
Meth¬ods (DEMM), Universita’ degli Studi di Milano.
We wish to thank for their collaboration: INVALSI (Istituto Nazionale per la Valutazione del Sistema Educativo di Istruzione e di Formazione), in particular Piero Cipollone, Laura Palmerio and Sabrina Greco; IPRASE (Istituto Provinciale per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione Educativa - Trento), in particular Francesco Rubino, and SREV (Struttura Regionale per la valutazione del sistema educativo - Valle d'Aosta), in particular Piero Floris and Paola Gallotta. We also thank Anna De Paoli for research assistantship in the field analysis conducted in Trento.
Par¬ticipants to the workshops and conferences "Improving Education through Accountability and Evaluation. Lessons from Around the World" (2013, Rome), the Fifth International Workshop on the Applied Economics of Education (2013, Catanzaro), the 25th Conference of the European Association of Labour Economists (2013, Turin), Enrico Rettore and Erich Battistin are grate¬fully acknowledged for their comments. The usual disclaimers apply.